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    科技翻譯例文-電子學的發展

    The Growth of Electronics

    The first phenomena that we now recognize to be caused by electrons were noticed during the nineteenth century when inventors like Edison were studying electrical effect's in evacuated glass bulbs and tubes. Sometimes certain areas of the almost completely evacuated vessel would become luminous and glow with blue, green or red light. Though these effects were exploited to produce colourful discharges—now well known as the fluorescent neon-tubes used in advertising—the cause of these phenomena was then unknown.

    Then, in 1899, J. J. Thomson discovered the first of the fundamental physical particles—the electron. This particle has a very small mass but carries a negative electric charge. The electron is therefore very responsive indeed to electric and magnetic fields. Soon after it had been discovered, scientists and inventors began to put it to work.

    The next invention, established the new applied science of electronics. In 1904 J.A. Fleming invented the diode valve which, with later elaborations, became the device which made radio possible. Marconi's experiments in 1901, in which he successfully transmitted the first messags by radio across the Atlantic, had demonstrated that radio waves could be used for telecommunications but it took some time to develop the first working radio systems. The first radio broadcasts were made in Britain in 1927 on short wave.

    So electronics is the basis of all telecommunications systems. The radio valves which contained a gas at very low pressure are now being replaced by solid-state semiconductor devices called transistors which are much smaller and have a longer life than gas valves. Since the last war a whole new industry concerned with the manufacture and exploitation of solid-state electronics has been established. One new branch of this field has led to the development of computers which contain enormous numbers of transistors, minute magnetic cores and other new electronic solid-state devices.

    The electronics industry now embraces radio, television, computers, automatic control and many other areas. Electronics is a field in which scientific research and technical development is still intensive, and so many more manifestations of the versatility of the electron can be expected.

    參考譯文

    電子學的發展

    我們現在所認識到的由電子引起的一些最初的現象,是19世紀當像愛迪生那樣的發明家在研究真空玻璃球、玻璃管里的電效應問題時就注意到了的。有時候,幾乎完全抽成真空的容器里的某些區域會變得光亮,并發出藍光、綠光或紅光。雖然這些效應被利用來生產各種顔色的放電管——現在在廣吿中使用的著名的熒光氖管(霓虹燈),但當時卻不了解這些現象發生的原因。

    另外,湯姆森在1899年發現了基本物理粒子中的第一種粒子——電子,這種粒子質量非常小,但卻帶著一個負電荷,因此,電子對于電場和磁場的確很敏感。在電子被發現之后不久,科學家和發明家便開始使電子發揮作用。

    下一個發明確立了新的應用電子學,弗列明于1904年發明了二極管;隨后經過不斷改進,二極管成了實現無線電通信的裝置。馬可尼于1901年做了一系列實驗,成功地利用無線電把第一批消息傳到了大西洋彼岸,這些實驗證明無線電波可以用來進行無線電通信;不過,直到若干年以后,才研制出第一批實用的無線電系統。最早的無線電廣播是在1927年在英國利用短波實現的。

    因此,電子學是各種電信系統的基礎,含有極少量某種氣體的無線電真空管,現今正為稱為晶體管的固態半導體裝置所取代;因為同氣體真空管相比,晶體管體積小得多,而且壽命也長。自從第二次世界大戰以來,制造與開發固態電子產品的整個新型工業部門已經建立起來,這一領域的一個新的分支,使裝有數目龐大的晶體管、小型磁芯以及其他新型固態電子裝置的計算機得到了發展。

    當今的電子工業包括無線電、電視、計算機、自動裝置以及其他許多方面。今天,電子學領域的科學研究活動與技術開發工作仍然在緊張地進行著,因此,可以預期,電子更為廣泛的用途將在許多方面體現出來。

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